The first written mention of the oil production in Russia dates to the XVI century. On Ukhta River locals gathered oil from the water surface to use it for the treatment and as a lubricant. In 1745, on Ukhta River refinery was built. In 1823, Dubinin brothers began to refine in Mozdok. In the Caspian Sea near Baku, in those days belong to the Russian Empire in 1846 the world's first oil well was drilled. A huge role in the development of the oil industry in the region played the Nobel brothers and the Rothschild family.

By the beginning of the XX century, 30% of the oil produced in the world, accounted for Russia. After the 1917 revolution and the subsequent nationalization of deposits in three years, oil production in the country has fallen. But foreign capital remained in Russia. Companies such as the Vacuum and Standard Oil, to which the Rothschilds sold their assets, collaborated with the Soviet government. As a result, in 1923 the level of exports returned to their previous values.

Until the Second World War, the bulk of the oil was produced in the Caspian region and the North Caucasus. Therefore, control of these valuable raw material rich areas was one of the main objectives of Germany during the war. After the war, oil production in the Caspian Sea began to rise again, but it was decided to actively develop the exploration and development of oil fields in the Volga-Ural region, where in 1975 the volume of production reached a peak of 4.5 million barrels per day.

The USSR made large-scale investments in the oil sector, and this contributed to the rapid growth of oil production in the region. Open field was easy to develop. In addition, they were not far from traffic arteries, which were another factor contributing to the development of the industry. In the 50s, the oil field of the Volga-Urals produced for about 45% of all oil produced in the USSR. With increasing oil production continuously oil exports increased. In 1960s the volume of the hydrocarbons produced by USSR came in second place in the world, which caused a fall in prices in Middle East oil and served as one of the reasons for the creation of OPEC.

Technically, Pluto is no longer considered a planet, but despite this, it still remains a celestial body of considerable size. And if you could build a spaceship to fly to the outer Solar System, somehow survive the journey and announce the Pluto as your own, you would still possess less land area than Russia.


And so, many are wondering is russia bigger than pluto? Let's count. Pluto's surface area is 16.65 million square kilometers, which is equivalent to 0.33 square of earth. Russia area is - 17,098,242 square kilometers - is much more than a small planet is on the edge of the Solar System. Recall that Russia is - the largest country in the world.

But Pluto is no longer considered a planet because it does not meet one of the three conditions laid down for the planets by the International Astronomical Union in 2006. The first two conditions are met: Pluto orbits the Sun and it is massive enough to have a spherical shape due to its own gravity.

The latter condition, which does not correspond to Pluto, is that the planet's orbit must not cross the orbits of the other planets, and must remain stable; Pluto is sometimes closer to the Sun than Neptune, so that it can not be considered a planet.

Let's talk about how did the revolution in Russia affect the war. October 25, 1917 in Russia the Great October Socialist Revolution occurred, in which the proletariat, in alliance with the poor peasantry under the leadership of the Bolshevik Party overthrew the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie and landlords and established the power of the Soviets. The Soviet government was formed, headed by Vladimir Lenin that immediately appealed to all the belligerent powers with a proposal to conclude a just democratic peace without annexations or indemnities. Due to the failure of the Entente and the United States to accept the offer, the Government of Soviet Republic was forced to conclude without their participation on December 2 the truce with the German coalition and start peace talks.

A week earlier, on November 26 an armistice with Germany and Austria-Hungary was concluded by the Government of Romania.

Two of the most popular ways to sneak into the United States without documents - is to cross to the US-Mexican border and take the boat to the coast of Florida. The first method is successfully used by millions of Mexicans, and the second - the Cubans, Dominicans, Guatemalans and Hondurans. Both those and others are opposed by thousands of members of the National Guard and the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), well aware of all the methods of illegal entry into the country.

Few people know about this, but there is a third loophole that allows to sneak into the territory of the United States - is the Bering Strait, which separates Chukotka in Russia and Alaska. How far is Alaska from Russia? The shortest distance between two continents is only 55 miles, which theoretically can be overcome for a half hours by speedboat.

"We can only guess about the number of illegal immigrants who sneak into the United States through the Bering Strait on a fishing boat, inflatable boats and motor boats - says Charles Kozik, the activist of the Coalition Against Illegal Immigration - CAII. - Over the last ten years we have not received from the management of ICE any comments on this issue..."

Kozik and his associates called Alaska as "state without borders", as its territory is virtually unguarded border - or guarded with the help of helicopters or using ships or with the help of infantrymen.

The early 1800s was the century of change not only in the economy, social relations, but also in social thought and culture. Changes in Russia could not be successful without raising the cultural level of its citizens. The army and Navy were in need of military experts, the bureaucratic apparatus - educated officials, and the rapid development of the economy required a large number of professionals with a technical background. The solution to these problems was possible only if the beginning of the reorganization of the system of training and orientation to establish educational institutions to study the exact and applied sciences.

In 1714, the existing network of schools was supplemented with arithmetic schools in the provinces. Children of servicemen began attending the schools at the garrisons, and the children of the clergy were taught at dioceses.

Russia did not have its own special schools. Peter the Great had to send for education aristocratic youth abroad. It was necessary to create a system of secular education. The foundation was laid in 1701 by the opening of the Artillery School. In 1712 Navigational School was opened, in 1707 Medical School. In 1725, on the initiative of Peter I the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and the University for Research training were opened.

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