The early 1800s was the century of change not only in the economy, social relations, but also in social thought and culture. Changes in Russia could not be successful without raising the cultural level of its citizens. The army and Navy were in need of military experts, the bureaucratic apparatus - educated officials, and the rapid development of the economy required a large number of professionals with a technical background. The solution to these problems was possible only if the beginning of the reorganization of the system of training and orientation to establish educational institutions to study the exact and applied sciences.

In 1714, the existing network of schools was supplemented with arithmetic schools in the provinces. Children of servicemen began attending the schools at the garrisons, and the children of the clergy were taught at dioceses.

Russia did not have its own special schools. Peter the Great had to send for education aristocratic youth abroad. It was necessary to create a system of secular education. The foundation was laid in 1701 by the opening of the Artillery School. In 1712 Navigational School was opened, in 1707 Medical School. In 1725, on the initiative of Peter I the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and the University for Research training were opened.

In Russia, was created a network of printers for printing of national scientific and technical books. During the first quarter of a century they managed to publish more than 600 new books. The beginning of the publication of periodical literature was founded.

In 1703 in Moscow "Bulletin of the military and other matters" began printing, which reported the news of domestic and foreign life. The educational literature ("Primer" F. Polikarpov, "Arithmetic" L. Magnitskiy) appeared. In 1708 on the orders of Peter the Great the book of civil contents began to print with simplified characters. In 1717 was published "Youth honest Mirror”, in which was given the body of knowledge about the rules of etiquette, alphabet, pronunciation rules and arithmetic.

To describe Russia in the early 1800s, let's move on to the beginning of the century. To promote scientific knowledge in 1719 in St. Petersburg the first natural history museum was opened - Cabinet of curiosities.

Practical needs of the state led to a growing interest in the natural sciences. The numerous geographic expeditions were organized, resulting Kamchatka, Siberia, the Far East were investigated and described (expedition led by F.I. Soymonov, Vitus Bering, A.I. Chirikov). This period was marked by the development of mining, metallurgy, military equipment.

Literature of Peter's time freed from the influence of the church retained the old images, but filled with new content. Purely secular subjects meet the needs of its contemporaries.

Architectural Russian art has acquired a secular character, new forms, new style. Principles of the new architecture were implemented during construction of St. Petersburg. City buildings are the alloy of Russian art traditions and architectural elements of Western countries - the name of this is Russian or Petrine Baroque that perfectly describes Russia in the early 1800s.

The most important architectural monuments erected at this time are: the Summer Palace of Peter the Great, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Colleges building, A. Menshikov's Palace on Vasilievsky Island. The names of architects D. Trezzini, M. Zemtsov, J.-M. Fontana, G. Fedelya associated the formation of the Baroque style in Russian architecture, the construction of the capital was carried out on a predetermined plan.

In Moscow, a monumental industrial building in the Kremlin and the Arsenal building Cloth yard was built. An outstanding Russian architect I. P. Zarudny worked here.

Paintings of Peter the Great period represented by the works of Andrei Matveev and Ivan Nikitin. Their paintings show secular subjects and portraits of their contemporaries.


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