Let's talk about how did the revolution in Russia affect the war. October 25, 1917 in Russia the Great October Socialist Revolution occurred, in which the proletariat, in alliance with the poor peasantry under the leadership of the Bolshevik Party overthrew the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie and landlords and established the power of the Soviets. The Soviet government was formed, headed by Vladimir Lenin that immediately appealed to all the belligerent powers with a proposal to conclude a just democratic peace without annexations or indemnities. Due to the failure of the Entente and the United States to accept the offer, the Government of Soviet Republic was forced to conclude without their participation on December 2 the truce with the German coalition and start peace talks.

A week earlier, on November 26 an armistice with Germany and Austria-Hungary was concluded by the Government of Romania.

In the Allied offensive in the western direction, held in order to break through the German fortified positions on the territory of France, was attended by six French and three British army (100 infantry and 10 cavalry divisions), more than 11,000 guns and mortars, about 1 thousand of aircrafts, 200 tanks. It began at different times: April 9 - near Arras, April 12 - at St. Quentin, April 16 - in the area of Reims and continued until 20-28 April, and in some areas - until May 5. In the attack on the Aisne River, Russian brigade participated, which was in France since 1916. The operation ended in complete failure. Lose up to 200 thousand of soldiers; the Allied forces were unable to break through the enemy's front.

Military campaign in 1917 did not bring the expected results of any of the belligerent. The October Revolution in Russia and the lack of concerted action of allies thwarted the strategic plan of the Entente, designed to defeat the Austro-German bloc. Germany managed to repel the enemy attack, but its plans to win by "unrestricted submarine warfare" were unrealistic. Coalition forces of the Central Powers were forced onto the defensive. The positional impasse on the fronts became widespread. Revolution in Russia affected the war in the most direct way. The most important political result of the campaign in 1917 was split of the single world capitalist system and the formation of the world's first socialist state.

In 1918, the internal situation of the belligerents, especially the German bloc, increasingly deteriorated. Germany experienced the strongest economic crisis: raw materials were not enough, industrial production fell dramatically, people were starving. Germany's allies were in even worse conditions.

The economy of the Entente, despite the difficulties experienced, proved to be more stable. Military equipment produced more than the opponent, including aircraft, mass production of tanks was established. In addition, the Allies used the US economic aid. Militarily, the Entente countries, with 274 divisions (excluding Russia), had in the beginning of 1918, approximately equal forces with the German bloc, which had about 284 divisions (excluding the 86 divisions on the Eastern Front and the 9 divisions in the Caucasus). However, by March 1, in Europe for more than 300 thousand of American soldiers and officers landed, and they continued to arrive (about 7 thousand daily).

Based on the current situation, the German command could not count on the long-term combat operations. It needed to defeat the Allied manpower to complete concentration and entry into the war of American troops. Therefore, concluded on March 3 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Soviet Russia, it decided in the same month to inflict a decisive defeat on British troops and to withdraw Britain from the war and achieve favorable world. At the same time, it is together with Austria-Hungary kept about 800 thousand of troops in the East, of which up to 500 thousand of soldiers were thrown to occupy Ukraine, the Baltic States and Belarus. Germany actually still continued the war on two fronts, which was one of the reasons for the inevitability of its destruction.

 

The Anglo-French command did not intend to conduct active military operations before arriving in Europe sufficient number of US troops and planned finally to defeat Germany.

Revolution in Russia demoralized the German army. The soldiers transferred from the Eastern Front surrendered to the troops of the Entente with whole regiments.

October revolution on the one hand withdrew the Russia from the war (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk), which allowed Germany to pull aside significant troops on the Western Front, but On the other hand spurred the revolutionary movement in Germany. On November 1918 in Germany a revolution happened, after which it surrendered.

The February Revolution spawned confusion and vacillation in the Russian army, officers were dismissed from command or commanded under the supervision of soldiers' committees.


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