The first written mention of the oil production in Russia dates to the XVI century. On Ukhta River locals gathered oil from the water surface to use it for the treatment and as a lubricant. In 1745, on Ukhta River refinery was built. In 1823, Dubinin brothers began to refine in Mozdok. In the Caspian Sea near Baku, in those days belong to the Russian Empire in 1846 the world's first oil well was drilled. A huge role in the development of the oil industry in the region played the Nobel brothers and the Rothschild family.

By the beginning of the XX century, 30% of the oil produced in the world, accounted for Russia. After the 1917 revolution and the subsequent nationalization of deposits in three years, oil production in the country has fallen. But foreign capital remained in Russia. Companies such as the Vacuum and Standard Oil, to which the Rothschilds sold their assets, collaborated with the Soviet government. As a result, in 1923 the level of exports returned to their previous values.

Until the Second World War, the bulk of the oil was produced in the Caspian region and the North Caucasus. Therefore, control of these valuable raw material rich areas was one of the main objectives of Germany during the war. After the war, oil production in the Caspian Sea began to rise again, but it was decided to actively develop the exploration and development of oil fields in the Volga-Ural region, where in 1975 the volume of production reached a peak of 4.5 million barrels per day.

The USSR made large-scale investments in the oil sector, and this contributed to the rapid growth of oil production in the region. Open field was easy to develop. In addition, they were not far from traffic arteries, which were another factor contributing to the development of the industry. In the 50s, the oil field of the Volga-Urals produced for about 45% of all oil produced in the USSR. With increasing oil production continuously oil exports increased. In 1960s the volume of the hydrocarbons produced by USSR came in second place in the world, which caused a fall in prices in Middle East oil and served as one of the reasons for the creation of OPEC.

In the early 1960s, it was announced on the opening of the first major oil fields in Western Siberia. It happened, when there was a question in the country: how to keep a high level of production after deposits in the Volga-Ural region will reach peak production. Discovery of the oil fields in Siberia gave a powerful stimulus for the development of the region - thousands of people moved to the rough region, oil towns and villages quickly rose. West Siberian Basin became the largest in the Soviet Union the oil-bearing and oil-producing area. Despite difficult weather conditions, oil production in Russia grew at a record pace. An important feature of the resource base of the region was the high concentration of proven reserves in large and major fields. In 1965 a giant Samotlor field was discovered, containing 14 billion barrels of oil available.

Thanks to the development of the oil industry in Western Siberia, USSR rapidly increased its oil production: from 7.6 million barrels per day in 1971 to 9.9 million barrels per day in 1975. To this day, the region remains a major "oil trump card" of Russia: Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug produces about 60% of the total annual oil production in Rusia.

After this great success, the oil industry gradually began to decline, caused by the desire to get as much as possible oil without worrying about the long term. Lack of investment in exploration was compensated by intensive drilling. By 1988, the Soviet Union reached a record - 11, 4 million barrels per day, and large part accounted for the deposits of Western Siberia. But from that moment, technological omission made themselves felt – it was impossible to restrain long decline in oil production.

The greatest influence on the crisis in the oil industry a collapse of the Soviet Union has had. Domestic demand fell, missed opportunities for exports. Due to financial difficulties, drilling reduced, the wells did not receive proper care. The decline in oil production has ceased in 1997 only.

De-monopolization and privatization of the sector has led to the creation of large, vertically integrated oil companies, each of which is engaged in a full cycle of oil production and processing in Russia - from exploration to sales of petroleum products to the final consumer. These companies now define the face of an industry that plays a vital role in the economy. By 2015, the largest of them are "Rosneft", "Lukoil" and "TNK-BP».

Today in Russian oil companies are often forced to work under very difficult conditions: it is necessary to extract oil from reservoirs, barbarously operated in Soviet times, from flooded reservoirs, from difficult field to develop. Therefore, the development of new technologies is one of the priorities of oil production in Russia.

In 2007, Russian oil production reached 492 million tons of oil and condensate. That oil accounts for about 30% of all Russian exports. At the current rate of extraction of proven reserves, liquid hydrocarbon should be sufficient for 50 years. However, many experts believe that the future - for the development of new technologies that will produce oil, where previously it was impossible.

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